Cross country meaning in economics

Cross-country - definition of cross-country by The Free

  1. cross-coun•try. (adj. ˈkrɔsˌkʌn tri, ˈkrɒs-; n. -ˈkʌn tri, -ˌkʌn-) adj., n., pl. tries. adj. 1. directed or proceeding over fields, through woods, etc., rather than on a road, track, or run: a cross-country race. 2. from one end of the country to the other: a cross-country flight. n
  2. conditions have no implications for a country's per capita income level in the long-run. In practice, the hypothesis is often taken to mean that per capita incomes in different countries are getting closer to each other in some sense, which implies that poorer countries are catching up with richer countries. Conceptually scrutinizing and empirically testing thi
  3. ants of economic growth, employing cross-country regression analysis. This approach implicitly assumes that countries possess similar structural characteristics (e.g. production technologies and institutional patterns). Structural differences, be they political, economic, social or other, between countries, therefore, do not condition the growth process. Or if they do, then the effects are randomly distributed with zero mean.
  4. nomic prosperity or growth. The connection between the bottom-up and the top-down studies is not usually emphasized, but is worth making explicit: If each government program has a cost then.
  5. Achievement is measured by an index, which is constructed to reflect greater achievement for an increase in the standard of living of a country that is already at a high level compared to that of another country with an equal increase but from a lower base. The paper tests for the statistical relationship between indicators of standards of living and per capita income across countries. It analyzes the disparity of achievement in standards of living across countries and explains inequality in.
  6. Cross-country analysis. English. https://doi.org/10.1787/g22628636-en.

It answers the question how much of the cross-country income variance can be attributed to differences in (physical and human) capital, and how much to differences in the efficiency with which capital is used? Hence, it does for the cross-section what growth accounting does in the time series. The current consensus is that efficiency is at least as important as capital in explaining income differences. I survey the data and the basic methods that lead to this consensus, and explore several. What is Cross-Sectional Analysis? Cross-sectional analysis is a type of analysis where an investor, analyst or portfolio manager compares a particular company to its industry peers. Cross. Cross Country conference championships. A period that begins the postseason where conference members oppose each other for the conference title. It includes the ACC Cross Country Championships. Essentially, the country imports the money that a foreign buyer pays for the export. The item received by the nation is recorded as a debit while the item given up in the transaction is recorded. Applied microeconomics uses cross-sectional datasets to analyze labor markets Labor Market The labor market is the place where the supply and the demand for jobs meet, with the workers or labor providing the services that employers, public finance, industrial organization theory, and health economics. Political scientists use cross-sectional data to analyze demography and electoral campaigns. Financial Analysts will typically compare th

cross country definition in English dictionary, cross country meaning, synonyms, see also 'Cross',Cross',cross potent',cross swords'. Enrich your vocabulary with the English Definition dictionar Cross-country regressions have been the tool of choice in asses sing the effectiveness of policies and the empirical relevance of th ese two diametrically opposite views of government behavior. When govern- ment policy responds systematically to economic or political ob jectives, the standard growth regression in which economic growth (or an Cultural globalization refers to the transmission of ideas, meanings and values around the world in such a way as to extend and intensify social relations. This process is marked by the common consumption of cultures that have been diffused by the Internet, popular culture media, and international travel.This has added to processes of commodity exchange and colonization which have a longer. Cross-country definition is - extending or moving across a country. How to use cross-country in a sentence

A note on cross-country growth regressions: Applied

  1. In this article I describe the evolution of the use of cross-country growth regressions in economics over the last two decades. The rise of cross-country growth regressions was an important component of the sea change in economic research associated with the new growth economics. By their fall, I do not mean to suggest that such regressions are no longer used; the opposite is very much the case
  2. Cross-Country (Abk. CC oder XC) ist eine Disziplin des Mountainbikesports.Sie umfasst eine Reihe von Einzeldisziplinen, die vergleichbare Anforderungen an die Streckenbeschaffenheit, Kondition, Fahrtechnik und Sicherheit stellen und von der UCI nach einheitlichen Regeln ausgetragen werden. Cross-Country ist vorrangig eine Ausdauersportart, jedoch erst eine gute Fahrtechnik ermöglicht die eine.
  3. However, we are not in a position to use these data for cross-country comparisons due to various reasons. In those surveys, there are differences in the population covered, differences in coverage on geography, age and employment status, differences in the definition on welfare (whether to use market income or consumption data), differences in the use of equivalence scale (whether to use household per capita or household adult equivalence), and differences in the treatment of.
  4. Centre consolidates the scientific competency of the University of Hohenheim in the fields of natural sciences, agricultural sciences, economics and social sciences to initiate scientific research cooperation with partners from Central and Eastern European countries and to coordinate cross country interdisciplinary projects
  5. Next, we estimate a multi-country model (including 33 economies) augmented with these threshold effects from January 1979 through to December 2019. Our framework (which we call a threshold-augmented GVAR, or 'TGVAR') is an extension of the standard GVAR model surveyed in Chudik and Pesaran (2016). Our updated model takes into account both the temporal and cross-sectional dimensions of the.

A Cross-Country Analysis of Achievements and Inequities in

The older term and concept of conspicuous consumption originated at the turn of the 20th century in the writings of sociologist and economist, Thorstein Veblen. The term describes an apparently irrational and confounding form of economic behaviour. Veblen's scathing proposal that this unnecessary consumption is a form of status display is made in darkly humorous observations like the following Gross National Product (GNP) is Gross Domestic Product (GDP) plus net factor income from abroad. Description: GNP measures the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced by the country's factors of production irrespective of their location. Only the finished or final goods are considered as factoring intermediate goods used. The futility of cross-country comparisons. Economics Free exchange. Jan 11th 2010. by The Economist | WASHINGTON. JIM MANZI has touched off a debate on the economic dynamism of America versus that. Cross-country Evidence on Start-up Dynamics OECD SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRY WORKING PAPERS 6 1. Introduction Previous OECD work has emphasised that young firms are the engine of job creation, and the same finding has been confirmed by a number of country-specific studies. Across a large sample o

Determinants of Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study. Robert J. Barro. Share. Twitter LinkedIn Email. Working Paper 5698 DOI 10.3386/w5698 Issue Date August 1996. Empirical findings for a panel of around 100 countries from 1960 to 1990 strongly support the general notion of conditional convergence. For a given starting level of real per capita GDP, the growth rate is enhanced by. This word has many meanings, but in economics it is usually a synonym for firm. Comparative advantage The ability to produce a good at lower cost, relative to other goods, compared to another country. In a Ricardian model, comparison is of unit labor requirements; more generally it is of relative autarky prices. With perfect competition and undistorted markets, countries tend to export goods. Definition of International Business. International Business is one whose manufacturing and trade occur beyond the borders of the home country. All the economic activities indulged in cross-border transactions comes under international or external business. It includes all the commercial activities like sales, investment, logistics, etc., in.

What Do the Colors and Symbols of the Flag of Jamaica Mean

OECD iLibrary Cross-country analysi

Macroeconomic notes Balance of payments Budget deficit Economic growth Fiscal policy Globalisation Exchange rates European Union The Euro Monetary policy Inequality Inflation International trade Supply side policies Unemployment Microeconomics notes AS Consumer and producer surplus Demand Economies of scale Elasticity Price elasticity of demand Cross elasticity of demand Income elasticit When you hear an economist or news reporter talking about the size of an economy, they are most likely referring to Gross Domestic Product or GDP. GDP is one of the most important statistics in economics. Measuring GDP tells us an enormous amount about how a nation is doing. If the GDP is rising, it signifies that incomes are rising, and consumers are purchasing more Definition of consumption function C = a + b Yd where a=autonomous consumption, b = MPC and Yd = disposable income. Diagrams to explain consumption function and shift in different components

The most accepted definition of economics was given by Lord Robbins in 1932 in his book 'An Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science. According to Robbins, neither wealth nor human welfare should be considered as the subject-matter of economics. His definition runs in terms of scarcity: Economics is the science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends. Market equilibrium is one of the most important concepts in the study of economics. In this lesson, you'll learn what market equilibrium is and how it is established, and you'll also be provided. rich countries seems to be inconsistent with the cross-country evidence, which indicates that per capita growth rates have little *An earlier version of this paper was presented at the Institute for the Study of Free Enterprise Systems' Conference on Human Capital and Economic Growth, SUNY, Buffalo, May 1989. 1 am grateful for suggestions from Olivier Blanchard and for research assistance from. Abstract. For 98 countries in the period 1960-1985, the growth rate of real per capita GDP is positively related to initial human capital (proxied by 1960 scho


Economic globalization refers to the increasing interdependence of world economies as a result of the growing scale of cross-border trade of commodities and services, flow of international capital and wide and rapid spread of technologies. It reflects the continuing expansion and mutual integration of market frontiers, and is an irreversible trend for the economic development in the whole. Survey mean consumption or income per capita, bottom 40% of population (2011 PPP $ per day) Survey mean consumption or income per capita, total population (2011 PPP $ per day) Private Sector. Doing Business Enterprise Surveys Household Consumption Data and Statistics. Business extent of disclosure index (0=less disclosure to 10=more disclosure

Cross-country data, as well as within-country data, suggest that economic inequality is negatively related to trust. This visualization provides evidence of this relationship: it shows a scatter plot of trust estimates from the World Value Survey against income inequality measured by the Gini index. Each dot on this scatter-plot corresponds to a different country, with colors representing. Selection and/ peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Research and Education Center doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00374-3 ScienceDirect 2nd GLOBAL CONFERENCE on BUSINESS, ECONOMICS, MANAGEMENT and TOURISM, 30-31 October 2014, Prague, Czech Republic The Relationship between Income, Consumption and GDP: A Time Series, Cross-Country Analysis Paula-Elena Diacona*, Liviu-George Mahab. GDP per capita is an important indicator of economic performance and a useful unit to make cross-country comparisons of average living standards and economic wellbeing. However, GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income and using it for cross-country comparisons also has some known weaknesses. In particular, GDP per capita does not take into account income distribution in a country.

The role of human capital in economic development: Evidence from aggregate cross-country and regional US data October 1994 Journal of Monetary Economics 34(2):143-17 A country's balance of trade refers to the difference in how much a country is importing versus exporting. The three components of the balance of payments are the current account, financial account, and capital account. The U.S. economy's reliance on consumption and low prices has created a large deficit in the balance of payments Cross Country Comparison of Generational Earnings Mobility* A cross country comparison of generational earnings mobility is offered, and the reasons for the degree to which the long run labour market success of children is related to that of their parents is examined. The rich countries differ significantly in the extent to which parental economic status is related to the labour market success.

Accounting for Cross-Country Income Differences NBE

  1. Investigating cultural-socio-economic factors that might be associated with between-country differences in music preferences can facilitate music information retrieval, contribute to the prediction of users' music preferences, and improve music recommendation in cross-country contexts. However, previous literature provides limited empirical evidence of the relationships between possible.
  2. Economic Globalization: Trends, Risks and Prevention 5 latter half of 1990, this proportion had already reduced to 0.6% and further down to an almost negligible o.4% in 1995
  3. Country classification Data sources, country classifications and aggregation methodology The statistical annex contains a set of data that the World Economic Situation and Prospects (WESP) employs.

The positive cross-country relationship between income and democracy in the 1990s is depicted in Figure 1, which shows the association between the Freedom House measure of democracy and log income per capita in the 1990s.1 This relationship is not confined solely to a cross-country comparison. Most countries were nondemocratic before the modern growth process took off at the beginning of the. Definition: Managerial economics is a stream of management studies which emphasises solving business problems and decision-making by applying the theories and principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics. It is a specialised stream dealing with the organisation's internal issues by using various economic theories

Cross-Sectional Analysis Definitio

A Cross Country Evidence Marcel Neutel DISCUSSION PAPER SERIES Almas Heshmati Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit Institute for the Study of Labor July 2006. Globalisation, Inequality and Poverty Relationships: A Cross Country Evidence Marcel Neutel University of Groningen Almas Heshmati University of Kurdistan - Hawler, TEPP, Seoul National University and IZA Bonn Discussion Paper No. Two recently improved sets of cross-country panel data are combined in order to re-examine the effects of population growth and fertility on economic growth. Using a 107 country panel data set covering 1960-85, we find that high birth rates appear to reduce economic growth through investment effects and possibly through capital dilution, although classic resource dilution is not evident.

Cross country glossary: Get to know the basic and advanced

Current Account Definitio

One country could be suffering from inflation while the trading partner's country is not. This can make returns on investment uncertain, and businesses typically don't like uncertainty. 3. Cross. cross-country Significado, definición, qué es cross-country: 1. Cross-country sports involve people moving over long distances through the countryside: 2. Aprender más Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows record the value of cross-border transactions related to direct investment during a given period of time, usually a quarter or a year. Financial flows consist of equity transactions, reinvestment of earnings, and intercompany debt transactions. Outward flows represent transactions that increase the investment that investors in the reporting economy have in.

Table of Contents IslamicSupremacism

Using cross-country and panel regressions, this paper investigates how gender inequality hinders economic and human development: a one standard deviation change in the Multidimensional Gender Inequality Index (MGII) will increase long-run per capita income by 3.4% and the Human Development Index (HDI) by 4.6%. These results are mainly driven by inequalities in the identity dimension and in the. Definition and meaning. Imports are goods or services of foreign origin that importers bring into a country. If I make something and then sell it to someone in another country, for them it is an import. For me, that product is an export. Imports come in from abroad. Exports, on the other hand, leave your country. Let's suppose you are an American living in the USA and you buy a Japanese car. Country Economics Department The World Bank June 1989 WPS 191 Openness, Outward Orientation, Trade Liberalization, and Economic Performance in Developing Countries Sebastian Edwards The paper provides a critical review of the existing empirical literature that deals with the relationship between trade orienta-tion and economic performance. Using a model that avoids the shortcomings of most.

Cross-Sectional Data Analysis - Definition, Uses, and Source

The differences between men and women highly depend on the national culture of the country. 2. Cross-cultural Differences in Multi-national Corporations Geert Hofstede is a sociologist who studied employees working in a multi-national corporation (Reynolds & Valentine, 2011). He described four ways that can help in analysing and understanding other cultures as follows: 2.1 Individualism vs. Included within the definition of IFs are: undertakings whose units or shares are, at the request of the holders, repurchased or redeemed directly or indirectly out of the undertaking's assets; and undertakings which have a fixed number of issued shares and whose shareholders have to buy or sell existing shares when entering or leaving the fund. Not included in the definition of IFs are. This allows a core definition of economic regulation as the rules and institutions which set, monitor, enforce and change the allowed tariffs and service standards for water providers. The note then explores how other closely related functions, such as controlling asset condition, can usefully be considered part of economic regulation in some cases. It also defines things that. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) FDI refers to the flow of capital between countries. According to the United Nations Conference for Trade and Development (), FDI is 'investment made to acquire lasting interest in enterprises operating outside of the economy of the investor.'*FDI is distinguished from 'portfolio' investment in that, as well as being 'lasting', it means that the. cross-national list of ethnic groups (Sections 2 and 3) and then presents the results of an effort to carry out the task (Sections 4-8). Restricting attention to groups that had at least 1 percent of country population in the 1990s, I identify 822 ethnic and ethnoreligious groups in 160 countries. Hypothetical ly, my objective is to include.

Bharat Ratna List - Winners of Bharat Ratna India (2020

Literature has argued that income inequality crowds out trust. However, whether income inequality makes people less trusting depends on how they perceive income inequality within their personal social context and social cognition. In this paper we therefore conjecture that the relationship of income inequality to trust depends on how income inequality affects inequality of life satisfaction Following a depreciation of the exchange rate, travellers already in a country are able to purchase more foreign currency for a set budget. There is also likely to be a lagged effect, to the extent that some purchases of foreign currency occur after the decision is made to travel but in advance of actual travel, when exchange rates are perceived to be favourable. High-denomination banknotes.


cross country definition English definition dictionary

A country with a higher level of GDP per capita is considered to be better off in economic terms than a country with a lower level. GDP differs from gross national product (GNP), which includes all final goods and services produced by resources owned by that country's residents, whether located in the country or elsewhere. In 1991 the United States substituted GDP for GNP as its main measur World Economics Association (WEA) CrossRef A. A. A. Cross-cultural differences in metacognitive self Vol. 8, No 1, 2015. Hanna Brycz . University of Gdansk Poland. e-mail: psyhb@ug.edu.pl. CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN METACOGNITIVE SELF. Joanna Różycka-Tran University of Gdansk Poland. e-mail: psyjro@ug.edu.pl Joanna Szczepanik . University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA. Keywords: economic development, economic impact, cross-country data in order to estimate the impact of the different factors on growth.2 From a very early point, a number of reviews and critiques of empirical growth modeling went to the interpretation of these studies. The critiques have focused on a variety of aspects of this work, including importantly the sensitivity of the analysis to.

Cultural globalization - Wikipedi

In this paper I empirically investigate economic and non-economic determinants of migration inflows into fourteen OECD countries by country of origin, between 1980 and 1995. The annual panel data set used makes it possible to exploit both the time-series and cross-country variation in immigrant inflows. I focus on both supply and demand determinants of migration patterns and find results. The underground economy has increasingly been of interest to policy makers and is a fact of life in today's world. Indicators such as income, unemployment, and consumption are unreliable when there is underground economy in a country, which make Cross-Cultural Measurement Noninvariance Eldad Davidov1, Hermann Dülmer2, Elmar Schlüter2, , Peter Schmidt3 1University of Zurich, Switzerland - 2University of Cologne, Germany - 3Higher School of Economics (HSE), Moscow, Russia This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF following peer review. The final, definiti


Journal of Economic Perspectives—Volume 24, Number 3—Summer 2010—Pages 3-16 E conomic development differs from most fi elds in economics because the study of low-income economies, and of people living in low-income economies, draws on all branches of economics. The particular study of economic growth is perhaps closest to being a fi eld like labor or health economics, but what is. Economic globalization stands for the economic interconnectedness of countries with the global economy as a whole. This interdependence relates both to the exchange of factors of production (labor, capital, technologies, know-how) and the exchange of products (material goods and services, finished and unfinished products, consumer and capital goods). In my opinion, there are three main drivers fo Global Market Monitor recently published a market research report on Cross Country Running Shoes, which studied Cross Country Running Shoes industry outlook, competitive situation, regional market analysis, type & application segment analysis, and market trend forecast by 2027. Get the complete sample, please click

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